The science of controlling electricity is known as electronic science, and it is a very important field to learn. Fortunately, it is not as difficult to learn as you might think. Electrical currents and circuits can be learned about right away, so get started right away. Order building kits or design your own circuits for a more hands-on experience. You may be able to create your own electronic devices in the future if you put in enough effort.
Part 1 Learning the Basics
1. To learn the fundamentals of electronics, you should read books. To learn more about electronics, go to your local library or bookstore and start reading. Electric circuits and how they work are covered in great detail in even the most ancient of textbooks. Make use of it to learn the fundamentals of circuit design before you start building your own.
Try books like Make: Electronics, The Art of Electronics, or Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits to learn more about electronic circuits and design.
If you want to work as a residential electrician, you should familiarise yourself with the residential section of the most recent National Electrical Code book.
More resources can be found by searching the internet for informative websites and digital book copies.
2. To learn about electrical engineering, you can use a phone application. Look through the Play Store on your smartphone to discover a variety of educational and hands-on apps. Some apps teach you the fundamentals of electronics, while others allow you to design your own circuit board with the help of a touchscreen interface.
For example, Electronics Basics or ElectroDroid are two excellent choices.
3. Investigate the path taken by a current through a wire. In atoms, electrons are the negatively charged particles known as electrons, and they make up an electrical current. When there is a current, electrons flow from a negative source, such as a battery terminal, to a positive source. This causes the current to circulate around the circuit and return to the positive terminal.
You can think of it as a faucet if you want. When the faucet is turned on, “water” is forced through the pipe until it reaches the other end of the pipe.
4. Learn about the voltage in a circuit by reading this article. In electrical circuits, voltage is a measurement of the amount of force required to cause current to flow through a circuit. In a circuit, electrons accumulate near the battery’s negative terminal, which is called the negative terminal. It takes energy to cause the current to flow through the circuit, and this amount of energy is measured as the voltage.
Consider it similar to the pressure in a water tank. When water is drained from the tank, the pressure decreases, resulting in less water being released.
5. Investigate the resistance factor of various objects in detail. Resistance is the property of a circuit that causes current to flow more slowly. Different materials are more or less effective at blocking electricity than others. In order for an electrical current to pass through insulation, it must be stronger than the current required to pass through a conductive material such as metal. The voltage is raised as a result of this.
Consider the case of a series of water pipes of varying sizes. Because of the limited amount of space available, water encounters greater resistance while flowing through the smaller pipe.
6. To understand the notation, it is necessary to look at circuit diagrams. A symbol is used to denote a component in an electrical diagram or a schematic. Before you can copy one to use in your own circuit design, you must first understand what the symbols mean. Look for a list of symbols that are used as shorthand in diagrams on the internet.
Wires are represented by the straight lines. A battery is represented by a plus sign, followed by a long and short straight line, as shown below.
Triangles, for example, are used to represent diodes in electronic circuits. Resistors are depicted as squares or jagged lines on a graph.
Part 2 Mastering the Tools
1. A multimeter is used to measure the electrical current flowing through a circuit. A multimeter is a convenient tool for measuring the various forces that contribute to the formation of an electrical charge. A current tester is a useful tool to have on hand when testing the current in any electrical circuit. Purchase a multimeter that measures current, voltage, and resistance.
The flow of electricity in a circuit is referred to as the current. Amperes are the units of measurement.
It is the pressure that pushes the current along the circuit that determines how much voltage is present in the current.
The amount to which a circuit resists the flow of electricity is indicated by its resistance. The resistance is measured in ohms.
2. A resistor is a device that limits the flow of electrical current. Resistors are small tubes that are connected to wires. They do not actively contribute to the reduction of electrical current, but they are critical in this regard. In the absence of a resistor, electrical current can become excessively strong and cause damage to other components.
For example, if you connect an LED light to a circuit that does not contain a resistor, the light may become inoperable.
3. A capacitor is a device that stores electricity. Capacitors are the polar opposite of resistors in electrical circuits. Instead of restricting the flow of electricity, they encourage it by storing a small amount of energy. In this manner, even if the power is interrupted, the circuit continues to function.
For example, if you turn off your computer, the capacitors will ensure that the electrical current from the battery continues to flow smoothly.
4. Diodes and transistors are used to control the flow of electrical current. These components have + and – terminals, which aid in the transmission of electricity. Electrical current flows through one end of the device and out the other when it is activated. Transistors have three ends, whereas diodes have only two.
Diodes are devices that allow an electrical current to flow only in one direction.
Transistors function similarly to switches in that they can change the direction of a current.
5. Cut and strip wires as much as you can to improve your skills. A wire cutter and a wire stripper from a hardware store are required for the majority of electrical work in the home. To accomplish this, first cut the wires to the desired length. Then, before connecting the ends to the components, remove approximately 14 in (0.64 cm) of insulation from the ends.
Hold the exposed ends of the wire against the components or tape them in place while working with them to get the job done. In the event that you are using a breadboard, you can simply push the exposed end into the hole.
At the beginning of your journey, you will not be required to learn how to solder.
6. Learn how to use wires of various colours by reading this article. Electrical wires are almost always made of copper. They are, however, housed in a variety of colours of plastic to distinguish between their various functions. Always connect like wires together to avoid confusion. To power your circuits, connect them together with black and red wires.
In a circuit, the black wires serve as the primary current conductors. Secondary carriers are represented by red wires.
Wires in the colours blue and yellow are uncommon, but they are used to transport electricity in complex circuits.
White and grey wires are referred to as neutral because they conduct electricity that has not been used.
Green wires are grounding wires, which means they are responsible for bringing current to the ground for safety.
Part 3 Getting Hands-On Experience
1. Create a circuit by referring to a circuit diagram. You can look for circuit diagrams on the internet to find a few simple ones that you can try to construct on your own. Examine the diagram to determine which components you will require. Then, construct the circuit in such a way that it resembles the diagram. It will assist you in getting a better understanding of how a circuit works.
It is preferable to begin with a more modest circuit. Choose one with a limited number of branching lines and readily available components such as a battery and light bulb.
2. Create a closed loop with the help of a light bulb. Obtain two copper wires, a fresh battery, and a light bulb for this project. Place the components on a table, and then use your hands to connect the battery terminals to the metal base of the light bulb until the bulb begins to illuminate.
These are the only components required to illuminate the bulb.
In order for the electrical current to flow, it must pass through the light bulb on its way from the negative terminal to the positive terminal.
Being able to see how this closed loop brings your light bulb to life can help you gain a better understanding of how electricity moves in an electrical circuit.
3. Purchase a practise kit to use for your projects. Go online to find a variety of electronic starter kits for people who are just getting started. Various kits are available, each of which is packaged with the components necessary to complete a straightforward product. This is an excellent way to get started learning about electronics without having to construct your own circuit board.
For example, an educational rover is a small, pre-built robot that can be used in educational settings. It is used to teach students some fundamental customization and programming techniques and concepts.
4. Work on Arduino boards to hone your skills. Arduino boards are low-cost circuit boards that are used in a wide range of electronic projects. The following items are included in any kits you purchase, but you can also purchase them separately on the internet. They are user-friendly, so try using one to build some simple circuits and projects to get a feel for how they work.
For example, the “blinking light” is a typical first-time project that teaches you how to make an LED light blink using simple Arduino programming on your computer.
If you don’t want to spend the money on a kit, an Arduino board and a USB cable will suffice for getting started. Connect the board to your computer and go to the Arduino website to download the software.
5. Using a breadboard, you can construct circuits. A breadboard is a tool for constructing circuits without the use of solder. It has the appearance of a piece of plastic with a number of holes in it. To connect the wires together in a circuit, push them into the holes. To generate electrical current, connect the wires to an Arduino board or a battery of sufficient capacity.
Experiment with turning on an LED light with the breadboard. You’ll need wire, an LED, a resistor, and an Arduino board to complete this project. All of these parts are available for purchase through the internet.
6. Utilize online schematics to create your own projects. Once you are comfortable with circuit construction, brainstorm a few projects that you would like to try your hand at, such as an alarm or a sensor. Schematics are diagrams that show you how to construct a project from the ground up. Many schematics can be found by doing a search on the internet.
For example, if you search for “blinking light schematic,” you will find a few different ways to construct a circuit that includes a blinking LED light.
Part 4 Advancing Your Knowledge
1. Find work as an electrician for a company that specialises in electrical work. The most effective way to learn about the electrical field is to take a job in the field in which you are interested. Decide what field you want to work in, such as working from home, in an office, or in the great outdoors. Then look for a company that specialises in that type of work and get to work!
For example, if you prefer to work outside, you might enjoy working for a company that specialises in solar energy installation and maintenance.
2. To operate electronics, you must learn how to programme in a programming language. Installing a microcontroller will allow you to give instructions to your electronics. Essentially, this is a small computer chip that is designed to fit on your circuit board. Using one entails learning a computer programming language such as C or C++, and then typing code into your computer’s text input field.
Arduino is a straightforward programming environment for microcontrollers that is suitable for beginners. Once you’ve connected the Arduino board to your computer, you can download the Arduino software and start coding.
3. Create your own schematics with the help of computer software. Install a straightforward, free design programme on your computer, such as Fritzing. Using the programme, you can design and build your own custom electrical circuit. This will assist you in better understanding electrical circuits and schematics. Additionally, you can use the programme to create something completely original to build.
Alternatively, more complicated PCB design software such as Eagle and KiCad can be used.
Once you’ve completed your circuit design, you can send it to a prototype manufacturer for further processing.
4. Take apart electrical appliances to use as a learning tool. Dismantle an old television, toaster, or other electronic device. It can be used to investigate the electrical components contained within. Once you’ve done that, try putting it back together again. You can also attempt to repair broken devices in order to gain a better understanding of how the various components function together.
Precautions should be taken to avoid electrical shock.
Before working on any devices that you do not own, ask permission from the owner.
5. Take an electronics course at a local community college. No matter what your age is, you can find a course that will assist you in getting started in the field of electronics. You can find free introductory classes in electronics or electrical engineering on the internet. You might even be able to locate some in your neighbourhood.
Following your initial training, you can progress to more advanced classes or begin experimenting with your own electrical circuits.
There are courses on these topics available at some high schools and colleges.
Check out websites such as Coursera or edX for free online courses, as well.
6. Soldering wires and working with electronics are good practise. As your skills develop, you will be required to connect wires or fasten them to electrical boards at some point. By heating tin soldering material with a soldering iron, you can use it to join two or more components together. This aids in the creation of better electrical circuits that are more durable.
Breadboards are simple to use, but the connections tend to come undone after a while.
When working with a hot iron or metal, it is important to exercise extreme caution. Never leave the iron on or place it on a flammable surface. Always turn it off when finished.
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