An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is a wave of energy that is commonly released by a nuclear explosion and has the potential to destroy the internal circuitry of most commercial electronics. The most straightforward method of protecting your devices from such a pulse is to build a simple Faraday cage. Faraday’s device, which creates a sort of electrical shield around whatever is stored inside it, was invented by Michael Faraday. The shield reroutes the flow of the electromagnetic pulse, limiting or completely eliminating its ability to cause any damage to the system. You can make a Faraday cage out of everyday items found around the house.
Method 1 Converting a Shoe Box Using Aluminum Foil
1. Choose a shoe box that has a lid. Look for a shoe box that is not only sturdy, but is also dry. The cardboard must be in good condition in order to serve as the structure to which the aluminium foil will be adhered. However, while you can use other types of boxes, it is important to have a lid, which is why shoe boxes are frequently the best choice.
Using a regular box, you will need to keep it closed until after an EMP is expected to strike the area.
You can quickly access electronics stored inside a shoe box by removing the lid from the container.
2. Take the box’s dimensions into consideration. You need to cover as much of the box as possible with foil that is not interrupted in any way. Taking measurements for the box ahead of time will make this process much simpler. After you’ve measured the length of the box, you’ll want to measure the height. Multiply the height by two and then add it to the length to get the total. In order to determine how long a piece of foil you’ll need to lay down for your first layer, multiply your measurement by 1 inch (2.5 cm).
You can measure the box in either inches or centimetres; however, you must ensure that you use the same unit of measurement throughout your project.
As an illustration, consider the following: a box that is 10 inches (25 cm) long and 4 inches (10 cm) high would appear as follows: 4 inches (10 cm) x 2 inches (10 cm) = 8 inches (20 cm). 8 inches (20 centimetres) plus 10 inches (25 centimetres) equals 18 inches (46 cm). To make a total of 19 inches, add 1 inch (2.5 cm) to the length you started with (48 cm).
You will be able to fold the foil over the top edges of the box because of the extra 1 inch (2.5 cm) of foil.
3. Using your measurements, cut three pieces of aluminium foil to fit your needs. Extend the foil from the roll until it measures the length you determined in the previous step (approximately 30 inches). Remove the aluminium foil from the box with a razor blade or by cutting it with the teeth on the box. Then repeat the process two more times so that you have three pieces of aluminium foil that are all the same length.
You would need to cut three pieces of foil, each measuring 19 inches in length, in order to follow the previous example (48 cm).
4. The shoe box should be centred on the first sheet of aluminium foil. The sheet of aluminium foil that will be placed on your table will be in the shape of a rectangle, with two longer sides and two shorter sides on either side. The box should be oriented on the sheet so that its shape matches that of the foil, with the longer sides of the box running parallel to the longer sides of the foil, as shown in the illustration.
It is not necessary to be exact with the placement of the box.
Do not close the shoe box with its lid just yet.
5. Wrap the aluminium foil around the box and secure it with tape. Your 1 inch (2.5 cm) increase in measurement should result in a layer of foil that extends beyond the top of the box by approximately.5 inches (1.3 cm) on either side, depending on your measurement. Fold the excess foil over into the box and secure it with scotch tape to keep it from falling out.
Excess foil should be folded around the outside of the shoe box.
The bottom and two shorter sides of the box should be completely covered in aluminium foil, but the top and two longer sides should also be completely covered in aluminium foil.
6. Fold the other two pieces of aluminium foil around the box on either side of the centre fold. Fill the box halfway with foil by folding about.5 inches (1.3 cm) into one side and wrapping the sheet around that same side, making sure that it overlaps the first sheet of foil on the short sides and bottom of the box. Then secure the piece of foil in place with tape. Repeat the process on the other side with the last sheet of aluminium foil that you have left.
The box itself has now been completely encircled with aluminium foil….
To ensure that all three sheets of foil are in constant and direct contact with one another, use long strips of tape to connect them. There should be no spaces between the foil layers.
7. Make another sheet of aluminium foil by measuring it out with the shoe box lid. With just one sheet of aluminium foil, you’ll be able to completely cover the box lid. Place the foil on the table and the box lid on top of it to make a triangular shape. After you’ve rolled out enough foil to cover the entire lid, use a razor blade or the box teeth to cut away the excess foil from the top.
Avoid tearing the foil because it will not have any overlapping layers like the rest of the box.
8. Using tape, attach the foil to the lid of the container. Fold the aluminium foil around the shape of the lid so that it completely covers the top and sides, then tape it in place with scotch tape to secure it.
The foil should be folded under the lid so that it covers both the inside of the lid’s sidewalls and the outside of the lid.
If you tear the foil or if the box lid is too large to be covered in a single sheet, you can add more layers of foil to protect it.
9. Close the box’s lid after you’ve placed your electronic equipment inside. Because of the direct contact between the foil from the lid and the foil from the box, a barrier is formed, which can redirect the energy released by an EMP around the electronics stored inside the box.
Check to see that the foil on the interior sidewalls of the lid is in contact with the exterior of the box’s walls before closing the lid.
You can add an extra layer of protection by taping the box shut with aluminium tape.
Keep in mind that if you seal the box, you will tear the foil when you open the box.
Method 2 Using a Bucket
1. Purchase a bucket made of galvanised metal. The bucket will serve as the body of the Faraday cage, and it will be filled with water. Check the bucket’s label to make sure it’s made of galvanised metal before using it. The size of the bucket should be determined by what you intend to protect within your Faraday cage. It is customary to complete this project with a 6 US gal (23 L) bucket.
In order for the Faraday cage to function properly, the bucket must be made of galvanised metal. Plastic buckets will not be able to divert the flow of a nuclear explosion.
Pick a bucket with a metal lid for this project.
Your local hardware store should have a galvanised metal bucket available for purchase.
2. Aluminum tape should be used to seal the bucket’s seams. In the event of an EMP, even though a galvanised metal bucket is watertight, the seam created in the bucket’s construction could provide enough of a gap to allow energy to pass through. Apply aluminium tape to the interior of the bucket along the seam where the metal pieces were joined together to prevent this from happening.
It is possible that your Faraday cage will function properly without the use of aluminium tape to line the seam. In order to ensure that there are no gaps in the protection provided by the bucket, it is recommended that you do so as an additional precaution.
Aluminum tape can be found at your local hardware store or online.
3. Aluminum tape should be applied anywhere handles are attached to the bucket or lid. Even a minuscule gap in the metal of the bucket or lid could allow an EMP to penetrate and damage the electronics stored inside your Faraday cage, causing significant damage. Add strips of aluminium tape to the inside of the bucket where the handle passes through, as well as to the underside of the lid where the handle attaches, to help prevent this from happening.
The holes where a handle is inserted into the bucket are the most likely locations for a gap that could allow a Faraday cage to be breached and cause damage.
It’s possible that the aluminium tape you used on the bucket’s seam has already covered these holes.
4. Make a cardboard liner for the inside of the bucket. Your electronics must be protected from contact with the metal on the outside by an insulating layer. A smaller rubber or plastic bucket can be purchased and simply placed inside the galvanised metal bucket, or a cardboard liner can be used to line the interior of the bucket. Instead of using aluminium tape to hold the cardboard in place, masking tape can be used instead.
A circle of cardboard should be cut out and positioned at the bottom of the bucket.
Insert the cardboard into the bucket so that it is standing upright, and wrap it around the inside of the bucket to seal it.
Following completion, the inside walls and floor of the bucket should be lined with cardboard to prevent leakage.
5. Place your electronic devices here. In the cardboard or bucket that you used to line the interior of your Faraday cage, place your electronic devices and batteries. After that, place the bucket lid on top of the bucket. The direct metal-on-metal contact between the lid and the bucket should be sufficient to keep the cage functional, but aluminium tape can be used to seal the bucket shut to provide additional protection if necessary.
To ensure that your Faraday cage is functional, use radios or your cell phone to test it.
Method 3 Testing Your Faraday Cage with a Cell Phone
1. Purchase one cellular phone and a second phone to use to make calls to it. This experiment will necessitate the use of two mobile phones. If you have a landline phone, you can complete the task on your own. Without a cell phone, you’ll need to enlist the help of a friend to help you with the test.
Once your cell phone has been placed inside the Faraday cage, you’ll need a way to communicate with it.
2. Make certain that both cell phones have adequate service. Find a location to conduct your test where both phones are receiving a strong cell phone signal so that you can be certain that it is the Faraday cage, rather than other environmental factors, that is preventing your phone from receiving a cellular signal.
This experiment should be carried out in a location where you can receive the best possible service from your phone, as this will yield the best results.
3. As a control, have your friend dial your phone number. Set the volume of your phone’s ringer to the highest possible level and wait for it to begin ringing. Although there may be a slight lag, your phone should begin to ring as soon as your friend dials your number.
There is a problem with your phone if it does not receive the call and you will be unable to use it for the Faraday cage test if this happens.
If the phone rings, immediately disconnect the call.
4. Make sure you put your phone inside the Faraday cage. Toss the phone into the Faraday cage you’ve built and close the lid tightly around the device. Replace the lid and check to see that it is in direct contact with the box or bucket all the way around before replacing it.
Any metal or foil that comes into contact with the phone while inside the Faraday cage should be avoided.
5. Instruct your friend to dial your phone number once more. If you are inside the Faraday cage, you should not be able to hear your phone ringing this time. This indicates that your Faraday cage has been successful in rerouting the signal around the outside of it and preventing it from reaching your phone.
Whether or not your phone rings indicates that a gap exists somewhere in the Faraday cage, allowing the signal to pass through.
To ensure that your cage is functional, test it more than once.
6. If the call gets through, look for any gaps in your Faraday cage to exploit. Any opening in the exterior metal of your Faraday cage that could allow an electronic pulse to pass through it is a potential security risk. Examine your Faraday cage and fill in any gaps you find with aluminium foil or tape if necessary. Then you can put the Faraday cage through its paces once more.
This test does not guarantee that your Faraday cage will function properly, but it is the most straightforward method of determining whether or not there are any potential signal leaks.
Repeat the test and continue to fill in the gaps until the signal is no longer able to pass through the Faraday enclosure.
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